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Twitchell p. 182-186 
To what extent do you see yourself reflected in the VALS2 paradigm? Whats your attitude to being stereotyped by marketers?

The VALS2 paradigm simply explains the different taste and preference of people. The schematic is based o the common sense view that people are motivated to buy products, services and experiences that provide them with satisfaction. For instance, a person can do anything out of his or her reach to have personal satisfaction. This explains why some people will prefer certain things than others. An example is a car model; one may prefer a BMW model than a Toyota, provided that he can afford both cars. For this reason, advertisers have developed different modes of ads to convene consumers depending on their taste.

At around 12 years, I used to be dressed my mom and didn’t care much about them. Maybe it’s because I did have much control. However, at 16 to 18, I became more concerned about how to dress; what to buy and what to avoid depending on the occasion. Of course I wanted to look classy and smart among my peers. I wanted to be noticed by everyone especially my peers. The kind of cloths though not “cool” could be noticed by anyone and one could easily tell my age. This did however change from the moment I joined collage, but of course during my third and fourth year. The story is totally different since I got my first job.

What I preferred at younger age is different from my current age. I think my experience is reflected in the VALS2 paradigm in that we experience different products up to a certain level where we stick to one brand regardless of different brands. At younger age, we try everything new that we on ads, but settle at a particular brand depending on our taste. At this point, adverts become less attractive as we already know what we want. From my experience, I think I was a “struggler” at 12, then transformed to a striver where I was trying to impress everyone by buying expensive cloths to appear rich though it was difficult to acquire them, and finally fulfilled thought not yet actualized.


Pozner p. 219-222
What do you think of Richard Roeper’s response to the Dove ad campaign. To what extent is it “unsettling”, as Pozner sees it, or do you find it to be simply honest?


I think Richard Roeper’s is not impressed by the Dove ad Campaign. This is because it tries to discourage the natural aging of women. However, he pin points that the essence of the advert is to encourage buyers to by their product. The essence of his reaction is to inform the insure women that the campaign is just but an ad that tries to extract money from innocent buyers. He is aggressive on how the advert is run. For instance, he is furious that the adverts always try to make women hate their bodies. He criticizes the ad that it should stop comparing women and making them believes that having skinny body is healthy and the best. He says that women are ok regardless of their body size. In other words, Robert tries to point out that the major goal for the Dove campaign is to make people spend money on the product. He points that people should stop the habit of striving to become young and forever beautiful.

What’s “unsetting” according to Robert is that men or the society should stop positioning and displaying women in hyper-objectifying images that they feel are good. The ads also disrespect women in the way they are displayed. They sometime make women lose their confidence and self-esteem. In other word, ads should stop making women feel good in certain looks and shapes while discouraging the natural beauty. Ads should stop the unrealistic display about unrealistic, unattainable looks that so many women strive to achieve. He also urges people to be realistic with what they want. While ads are aimed at increasing sales and profit, they should strive to be realistic and respectful towards the female gender.

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first Amendment to the Constitution


The first Amendment to the Constitution addresses the different rights given to the people by the constitution. The people has the freedom of exercising their own religion, has freedom of speech and they has the full right of peacefully assembling at a place.

Q1. Discuss which freedom guaranteed to you in the First Amendment to the Constitution is most relevant to you personally.

Freedom of speech in the First Amendment to the Constitution is the most relevant to me personally. It expresses that the people are free to speak without any government interference. The freedom of speech provides the people a political right to freely communicate with each other their personal thoughts and beliefs. The people are free to communicate to those who want are willing to receive from them the required information without ant government intervention. Expression also helps the people in imparting information or ideas to other people. The freedom of speech and expression must be imparted in accordance without any violation of government law. There should be respect for rights and reputation for others and must protect the national security and public health. The freedom of speech was granted in the bill of rights and it is still in effect. If there is a freedom of communicating ideas and opinions then they can strongly hold their opinion without any interference and can freely impart information and ideas to others. This right is important for the media that plays a very important role to make use of this right of freedom of speech and expression. The freedom of speech is a fundamental right given under democracy where the people have the full freedom to express their views and thoughts to others (John, 2007).


Q2. Analyze and discuss the significance of the Bill of Rights and subsequent notable amendments to U.S. democracy.

The Bills Of Rights are the fundamental rights given by the United States to the citizens that serve to protect their rights from infringement by the government. The importance of bill of rights is that it represents the popular American culture and it has a unified of dealing with different constitutional issues that mostly attracts the attention of people and government for several years. It is important because it helps to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens against any encroachment by the government and also from the ensuing misinterpreting the power of the government towards the common citizens of United States. The Bill of Rights constitutes the fundamental rights given by the constitution to the people which includes that they have the freedom of speech, religion, assembly and press to all citizens. The bills of rights are embedded in the constitution of almost every country in the world. The bill of rights also provides monarchy to many thinkers in the revolutionary era. The people have freedom to choose their representative and can undo the bad policies implemented by him. The people own a right to protect their rights from being violated (Anastasia, 2010).

Q3. Discuss the process for amending the Constitution. Is this a “fair” process? Explain.

There are two ways of making an amendment in the constitution:-

  1. Through a regular amendment
  2. A constitutional convention

The constitution requires an amendment when the two-third of the legislation asks for the amendment in the constitution. It is required that there should be three-fourth of the people’s proposal at the convention to ratify.

The second way of amending the Constitution is by passing a regular amendment. It can be done when the two-third of both the house and senate votes to propose an amendment then that is sent to the states for the ratification and if three-fourth of the state approves it then it becomes the part of the Constitution.

The Supreme Court and the president have no role to play in amendment of the constitution. There should be some reasonable time for the ratification of the proposal. When there will be the consent of two-third of both the houses then there is a passivity of amendment to this constitution. The Amendment must not affect the first and fourth clause in the ninth section of the first article and must have consent of both the houses and the senate. It is very difficult to amend the constitution. Since now only 33 amendments have done with the consent and approval of both the houses(Karen,2003).

Q4.How has the case of McCulloch vs. Maryland shaped American society?

The first bank was created by the US government in 1791 for the country at that time when it was controversial to create nationalized bank due to controversies, corruption and the people have a thought in mind that the federal government is becoming powerful (Killenbeck,2006). It was the attempt of Maryland to close the branch of Baltimore by passing a law that emphasis the banks to pay yearly tax that are created outside of the state. But the branch employee McCollum refused to pay the tax. The Maryland was in a convention that she has the power to tax any business in its state and the constitutions do not give any right to the Congress to create any national bank. Ultimately McCollum was fined but it was convicted by the Supreme Court that it is unconstitutional to tax any branch and the Congress has implied power to create a nationalized bank (Smith, 1996).



  • Howard, John (2009)” 2009 Menzies Lecture by John Howard” The Australian (News Limited) Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  • Castillo, Anastasia. Banned Books: Censorship in Eighteenth- Century England… Retrieved February 22, 2014
  • Sander, Karen (2003). Ethics & Journalism Sage p.66 Retrieved February 23, 2014.
  • Mark Killen beck(2006), McCullohvs Maryland: Securing A Nation, University Press of Kansas Retrieved February 22, 2014
  • Jean Edward Smith (1996), John Marshall: Definer of a nation, New York: Henry Holt & Company. Retrieved February 22, 2014.





Zipcar’s Marketing Strategy


Ideally, marketing should serve as a conduit between a host of important elements of the firm and the consumer base. The effectiveness of marketing or any marketing strategy for that matter, can thus, best be described as a function of the extent to which it enlarges its skills and knowledge, in the process of connecting the product and the consumer, while maintaining an optimal level of financial accountability. Talking about marketing strategies, one of the most revered and successful strategies are Zipcar’s marketing strategy. The car sharing giant set out to epitomize various marketing principles and consequently managed to create an enviable client base for itself in a span of a few years.

Answer 1

Talking about benefit oriented positioning; Zipcar seems to have done a fairly good job in this area. In its positioning strategy one of the most unique features is the fact that the company has been constantly evaluating and changing the parameters or the benefits around which their positioning strategy centers. As per the concepts of positioning given in Chapter 7, a strategy must be able to present explicitly the benefit which the product seems to accrue to the potential buyers. In Zipcar’s case, their impetus of environmentally benign cars helped them earn brownie points with their clientele. Further, as indicated in Chapter 7, a good positioning strategy must be evaluated and changed from time to time, on the basis of the requirements of the niche that an organization is trying to target.  Likewise, Zipcar, moved on to expand its perception of the possible benefits that people might get by renting Zipcar cars. For this, it went ahead to clearly outline the typical ‘car-sharing’ individual. While doing this, they noticed that there were a few reasons as to why somebody would want to share a car or rent one form Zipcar. The strategies based on these pointers set out to achieve a number of objectives, which included the likes of reducing the hassles of owning a car, having the required resources for owning a car, doing away with the responsibility of maintaining a car and making having a car affordable and easy, among many more.

To achieve this end, the company introduced a slew of pro-client services. The company enables people to become a member of the Zipcar car rental network by paying a membership fee of $60 on an annual basis. Plus, people can reserve a car as quick as within minutesor they might reserve a car well in advance.  Coming to the cost, it is hard to get to drive a car of one’s choice for as little as $7.50, especially when it includes insurance, gas and an added bonus in the form of free miles.  Once people are done with the rental car, they can return back the car and leave the cleaning and maintaining to Zipcar. All these services and freebies have substantially reduced the hassles one encounters in owning a car. With Zipcar, in their lives, most people do not feel the need of owning a second or third car.

Answer 2

An important thing to note is that the success of any strategy also depends on the extent to which it fulfills human needs.  Unless a product is marketed in a way that it makes the client feel that there indeed exists a need that this product or service can fulfill, the product will not be able to make the optimal impact on a potential customer. It is for this reason, that marketing strategies use potential human needs as their crux, as explained in Chapter 1. In this context the hierarchy of Maslow’s needs come to great use. Chapter 5 explains the entire concept of the hierarchical nature of human needs, as envisaged by Abraham Maslow in 1943. According to Maslow, the achievements of people are motivated by the urgency of their needs. He went ahead to classify these needs as physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, needs catering to a person’s self esteem and finally self-actualization. The more a product had the capacity to fulfill a particular need, the more suited it is for a person. Likewise, a marketing or a positioning strategy is likely to more effective, if it caters to a similar human need.  Coming back to Zipcar, the company’s beliefs are more or less tangential to the social and safety needs of a person. A rather sensible and objective fact that has guided Zipcar and helped it immensely in narrowing down their niche is their belief that while they cannot create a product that can completely satisfy everyone, they can definitely serve the urban dwellers of densely populated areas, who wish to own a car minus the hassles of ownership. They identified this need as a lifestyle that people couldn’t wait to have. Zipcar started out with a value system that was a reflection of what was on their customer base’s mind, namely environmental consciousness.

Once, they had found a footing for themselves in the market, they shifted focus to revaluating their course. Zipcar went ahead to look into the most compelling factors for renting a car. These factors were then used to model services and strategies. These strategies bore semblance with needs for convenience, affordability, a no-hassle functioning, accessibility and fuel efficiency among many more. For starters, people could easily hire a Zipcar, by paying an annual membership fee, which was as low as $60. The strive to make the consumer’s experience a great one, was reflected in the accessibility with which people could reserve a car via their online portal, mobiles or an app. Additionally, free insurance and gas along with fuel efficiency, in Zipcars, was like the cherry on the cake. Another unique feature about Zipcar’s approach to marketing was the personal touch to the services dealt out to customers, which made them feel that they were borrowing a car from a friend rather than a rental car agency. Such proximity between the company and the clientele is a very healthy development. Today, these clients are fondly referred to as Zipsters.  Such references of colloquialism in a client- organization relationship enable organization to break the ice and create a long lasting brand impact. A wonderful move towards this end was giving each of the ‘pods’, as people like to refer to these cars, a name and a personality. Further, as these profiles and names were given by the Zipsters themselves, it helped to compound the cohesiveness between the two parties.

The success of any marketing campaign has a lot to do with its inclusiveness of the client. Client participation, be it in an active manner or passive manner, can have a substantial bearing on the results. Understanding this, Zipcar went ahead with customized promotional activities and events that enabled prospective clients to interact on a one-on-one basis with the company. Be it swinging sledgehammers at SUVs in San Francisco or guessing the number of frozen meatballs in a MINI, as was done during a promotional activity in Harvard’s campus.

Despite such success, it is definitely not easy to target such a large audience via single prong strategy. Especially, when one considers the fact that the company has a goal of enabling every Zipster to not have to walk for more than ten minutes, before they encounter a Zipcar. Realizing this, the marketing team organizes various events and advertises via local ads, by dividing areas on the basis of zip codes and blocks. This ensures maximum outreach.

Answer 3

Positioning refers to the plan that marketers have charted out in order to promote their product in the niche that seek to target. It is reflective of the values and requirements that guide them.  As explained in Chapter 7, positioning may be differentiated on the basis of many factors. Two of such factors are benefit orientation and beliefs and values.  Talking about Zipcar’s positioning strategy; though Zipcar started out with a value based strategy it soon shifted to a benefit oriented strategy in order to expand its customer base. Zipcar started out with an objective to create a urban lifestyle that, though could not impress everyone, but was definitely the thing that most urban dwellers, residing in highly populated areas such as New York, London or Boston, were wanting. While starting out, Zipcar adopted a value based positioning strategy that helped it differentiate itself from its competitors. This concept was that environmental consciousness. This strategy helped it create a solid footing for itself. Also, Zipcar had the advantage of being the few companies who promoted the idea of ‘environmental friendly’ through the rental cars market. This gave it an early entry advantage. Moving on, the company changed tracks from a value based strategy to a benefit based strategy, with which it sought to sustain its growth. Such dynamism is required if a firm has to stay in the market while still being useful to the client.

When the firm shifted to a benefit oriented strategy, it first underscored the most compelling reasons for renting a car. It then tackled each of these reasons by incorporating a solution for every problem in their policies and services. Further in their bid, to cater to more and more needs, the company went in for some hard core sales pitching by organizing various promotional events that involved the participation of prospective clients. Moreover, Zipcar’s model has been immensely successful that it is being used global giants like Google and even by Chicago city agencies, who are looking for a more sustainable means of transportation for conducting their business.

The benefits accruing from a value based strategy as in the case of Zipcar, gave it a headway in the rental car market, giving it some leeway, which otherwise while, their benefit oriented strategy enabled them to survive without having to fall back on their past performance. A benefit oriented strategy considers the fulfillment of human needs as crucial. On the other hand, a positioning strategy based on values might be out of sync with what clients are actually looking for. Further, Zipcar has managed to create a level of brand loyalty that is similar to that of other iconic brands like Apple Inc. and Harley Davidson.

Based on my evaluation, positioning on the basis of benefits turns out to be stronger and more sustainable than a strategy revolving around the pivot of the firm’s values. While using the latter may be ideal for creating a niche or carving a strong foundation for a company, or for that matter, even changing the strategy or focus of a company. However, in order to sustain the customer base that they have assembled, there needs to be something for the customers to look forward to.



1)      Richard Rosenbaumlliott and Larry Percy, Strategic Advertising Management, Oxford University Press, 2012, Print

2)      Moorman, Christina, and Rust, Roland, “ The Role of Marketing” Journal of Marketing, 63 (1999) : (2-3)




Pluto and Aristotle – Online Homework Help



This research paper is about the comparison of the Plato and Aristotle to the western history and philosophy. The thoughts and the works of both the philosophers’ have been discussed in Philosophical way which is explained in brief manner.




Is there anything in this world called as wisdom or it is mere collection of words or teachings? The answer to this question can be found out by getting into life and works of the theologies by the modern mind.




It may be noted that both Plato and Aristotle were great philosophers who explicitly developed so many theories during their entire life period and they were into metaphysics, ethics, aesthetics, logic, poetry and music. Their collective works constitute and gives an idea of the first western history’s first comprehensive system. They were great philosophers and had great wisdom to contribute to the western societies which led the foundation of western history.











Comparing the teachings of Plato and Aristotle and their influence on western History:


Plato (c.427- 347 B.C):

Plato was a classical Greek philosopher and a mathematician from aristo family and also the most famous student of Socrates. Plato was “idealist” or “utopian” or “dreamer” and wrote 20 books, with Socrates as the main character.

When Socrates his teacher died, he was just 28 years old and left Athens but returned, established a school for the Athenian youth, at the age of forty. The school was closed by Justinian, the Byzantine Emperor and it exists from 387 B.C to A.D 529.Plato was idealist and believed in order and harmony, morality and self-denial, immorality of the soul.

Forms Theory: The highest function of the human soul is to acquire the vision of the form of the god. In the form of a dialogue, Plato recorded Socrates experience. Socrates was the main speaker, came know through Plato when he wrote his dialogues after 399. Plato dialogue style was the Socratic as well as dialectical style. This style he employs throughout, which was the form of question-answer.

“Mankind is born with Knowledge” it was the Plato discoveries as his own, which states that by birth humans being possesses knowledge in them.

Plato’s greatest and best work was ‘The Republic’ dialogue, which was regarded as Plato’s blueprint for future society of perfection.

The Republic embodies expression of his knowledge theory in ethics, politics ethics, justice nature and statesmanship.

According to Plato, The citizens are the least desirable participants in government. He used to ask epistemological question like what is knowledge. What is illusion? What is reality? How do we know? What makes a thing, a thing? What can we know?

Plato distinguishes between the realities presented to human beings by their senses like touch, smell. Sight, sound, taste and the essence of that reality, which considers that reality is changing every now and then.

Plato postulates higher unchanging reality of the beautiful, goodness or justice, that for good life we have to live according with Universal standards.

Plato’s ‘ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE’ the central argument of which was that human sense deceives them as they trust their senses. Human beings are in a cave like prisoners, which mistake shadows on a wall for reality and ALLEGORY OF THE CAVE appears in Book VII of The Republic.

Plato wanted to rescue Athens from degeneration by reviving that community sense that had at one time made the polis great and the only solution to this problem was to give control over to the kings of Philosopher as they have intellectual ability to achieve the highest form of contemplation of human beings.

Plato felt that Athens direct democracy, had failed to consider his ideals and the problem he saw was that wisdom and power had traveled divergent path and only solution was to unite them through the Philosopher king.

He states that everything we experience is imperfect, such as beauty and we never see perfect beauty in the world; each and every form is the one and only original perfect example. Plato called supreme Form the ‘Form of the Good’. Forms are more real, eternal as beautiful may come and go but beauty itself remains, changeless, they always remain the same. His world of Form contains fixed truths which are absolutely true for all time, people and places.

The contribution of Plato which he had on the western and world history are as follows:

  • Shaped Christian thinking on God, the soul and an afterlife by his thinking on the soul immorality, conception of a world beyond the sensory and his god-like form of good.
  • Nietzsche called Christianists “Plato for the people”
  • According to him, knowledge of the Good is the highest knowledge a human is capable of and he thinks independent of the sense in his search for truth.
  • Forms are the perfect expression of something and every physical objects seen with sense are dependent on and simply shadows of the Forms and the Forms exist in the Noeton.

Aristotle (384-322 B.C):

Aristotle was famous student of Plato, son of physician to Philip of Macedon. He was the personal tutor Alexander the Great and he styled himself a biologist, charged too with impiety.

Aristotle became the student at the Academy of Plato, whose age was sixty years and he himself was sixteen. The Lyceum was name of the school Aristotle had started in 335B.C, which was close by Justinian in A.D 529.

Aristotle was the “real” or “encyclopedist” or “inspired common sense” or “the prince of those who know”. He believed in all things follow the middle course, by avoiding extremes, one will enjoy its best of happiness and pain minimum .Aristotle was called the “encycolpedist” as he led a profound love of order. He led to explosive advances in the Greek scientist capacity to conduct scientific research. Aristotle was a Plato student, who in turn studied under Socrates. Aristotle had a great idea about everything and his students recorded almost everything he taught at his school. In fact, the books to which Aristotle’s name is attributed are really more than notebooks of student.

Aristotle was a “polymath” taught physics, music, tragedy, drama, aesthetics, logic, zoology, poetry, ethics and politics, but he did not excel in mathematics where Plato was a master of geometry.

Aristotle did not believe in Plato ideas that there every object in the phenomenal world is an essence or absolute. Aristotle believed that knowledge comes from experience, where Plato believed that human beings were born with knowledge.

  • Rationalism- It states that knowledge is a Priori which comes before experience.
  • Empiricism- This talks about knowledge is a Posteriori that comes from experience.

Aristotle, who was most famous student of his teacher Plato, was his greatest critics which result a little patience with his teacher ideas of higher world of the Forms.Aristotle argued that were universal principles but that they come from experience and reject the Plato ideas of world of Forms beyond space and time.





From the above discussions of the work and teachings of Plato and Aristotle it can be concluded that both of them were pioneer in the field of logic and theoretical philosophy and based the solid foundation western ancient Greek wisdom by their depth of intellectual knowledge and work. Their ideological philosophy has many social implications like ideal state of government. These becomes clear as we go on and do the comparative study of both the scholars which lays the foundation of western history.








































1. John J. Hospers, “The concept of artistic expression.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 55:313-44.1955.


2. William J. Luyten, “Pluto not a planet?”  (Science, 2006),. 123:896. 195.

  1. Smith, Nicholas D. (ed.), “Plato: Critical Assessments.” (London and New York: Routledge, 1998) in four volumes: I: General Issues of Interpretation; II: Plato’s Middle Period: Metaphysics and Epistemology; III: Plato’s Middle Period: Psychology and Value Theory; IV: Plato’s Later Works.


4. Irwin, T. H., “The Platonic Corpus” in Fine, G. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Plato (Oxford University Press, 2011), 63–64 and 68–70.


  1. Jones, W. T.” The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy.” (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1980) , p. 216














John J. Hospers, “The concept of artistic expression.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society,(1955): 55:313-44.


William J. Luyten, “Pluto not a planet?”  Science, 123:896. 195.


Bertrand Russell, “A History of Western Philosophy.” Simon & Schuster, (1972).


Irwin, T. H., “The Platonic Corpus.”  The Oxford Handbook of Plato (Oxford University Press, (2011): pp. 63–64 and 68–70.


Jones, W. T. “The Classical Mind: A History of Western Philosophy.” Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, (1980): p. 216